Pathology

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Full Blood Count

Haemoglobin

These readings provide a set of measures about red and white blood cells.
Red Cells transport Haemoglobin which provides oxygen to all tissues in the body. These measures allow for direct or indirect measures of anaemia, excess red cells (e.g. Polycythaemia) or indicators that there may be deficiency of Iron, B12, or folic acid. This analysis is fundamental for a thorough clinical examination

Red Blood
Cell Count

Haematocrit

MCV

MCH

White Cell Count

The white cells, overall reflect the range of blood ceils that defend s against infection, particularly the neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. High levels suggest infection or inflammation and low levels suggest a risk of infection or often intercurrent viral disease or more serious blood disorders such as cancer or leukaemia.

The lymphocytes themselves are cells that implement the immune response and Eosinophills are particularly prominent in patients with allergic reactions.

Neutrophils

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Eosinophils

Basophils

Platelets

Platelets are responsible for the control of bleeding and, combined with blood coagulation factors, produce clots at sites of injury. In particular, high platelet levels may produce spontaneous clotting. Low levels may produce abnormal bleeding and is often a sign of a significant blood disorder.

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Electrolytes

Sodium

Electrolytes are involved in controlling an effective balancing act for functioning of nerves, muscles and heart, eg. Abnormalities here are often attributable to medication for kidney disease.

Calcium in addition is very important for maintenance of healthy bone structure.

Potassium

Chloride

Bicarbonate

Bone and other metabolites

Calcium

Phosperate

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Kidney Function
Tests

Urea

This cluster of readings is particular relevant to kidney function, an increase suggests that there may be impairment to kidney function. They are critical markers for which early detection of disease is invaluable to prevent progression to significant kidney damage and ultimately kidney failure.

Creatinine

eGFR

Uric Acid

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Liver Function Tests

Gamma GT

The liver is a vital organ for both clearing from the body chemicals that need to be secreted out of the body as well as manufacturing a set of important chemicals. Abnormal readings may be due to drugs, viruses (Hepatitis A, B or C) and are frequently increased due to excessive alcohol consumption.

LDH

AST

ALT

Total Protein

Total Bilirubin

Alk Phosphate

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Blood Proteins

Albumin

Albumin is a carrier of any chemical and proteins in the body.

Total Protein

A wide Spectrum of blood proteins, including antibodies which circulate through the blood and protects from infection. Low levels may indicate reduced immune function.

Globulin

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Lipids

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is generated both from absorption and from internal production. Although  an essential health requirement, excess levels are significant for damage to arteries, leading to stroke, heart disease and kidney disease.

HDL Cholesterol

HDL is the protective cholesterol that counters the effect of the LDL Cholesterol  in blood vessels

LDL Cholesterol

LDL is the cholesterol responsible for increasing damage to the blood vessels, especially in the heart and brain, resulting in heart attack and strokes.

Triglycerides

Triglycerides are another form of fat also damaging to the blood vessels and particularly elevated in obesity, diabetes and excessive alcohol intake.

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Blood Glucose

Blood Glucose

Blood sugar is increased outside the normal range especially in diabetes. Early detection of diabetes is critical, so that long term complication such as kidney an heart disease can be prevented.

Grouping of Tests

Pathology Tests

Diagnostic Value

Other tests

Ferritin

Ferritin is a blood measurement of iron stores in the body. Low levels are usually associated with anaemia. High levels are also dangerous and may be evidence of either inflammation in the body of genetic conditions in which there is excess stores in the body (haemochromatosis) which leads to damage of the liver pancreas and other organs.

PSA

Is measured in males over 50 years of age or those who are 40 with a significant family history. It is an enzyme produced by the prostate and excess levels may indicate excess activity of the gland.

Vitamin D

Is essential for strong bones, muscles and overall good health. Ultraviolet rays from sunlight is necessary for the production of Vitamin D in the skin, however some dietary factors can also play a limited part in tis production. Vitamin D is thought to be deficient in up 58% of Australians.

hsCRP

CRP is a protein found in the blood, the level of which rise in response to inflammation. Patients with high CRP concentrations are more likely to develop stroke, myocardial infarction and severe peripheral vascular disease

HBA 1c

The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood.

By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an
overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a
period of weeks/months.

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